Sociobiology is a term that, even a quarter century after it was thrust
into the academic domain, often elicits unexpected and weakly articulated
hostility from persons would appear to be otherwise sensible. Few educated
persons now disagree that both the basic and extended premises of evolutionary
theory have been repeatedly supported and empirically substantiated. And
since sociobiology is simply a way to suggest that humans are not excluded
from the effects of evolutionary forces, the vehemence of this emotional
reaction always surprises me.
The author of the present book takes on the critics of sociobiology
directly, and effectively demonstrates both the strength of the sociobiological
approach and the questionable motives of those who would detract from it.
Not only academics are disturbed by the ideas of sociobiology. As Alcock
explains, "[Sociobiology] does not appeal to those people, academics and
non-academics alike, who believe that to understand human behavior, one
[should] focus only on the process of cultural indoctrination, which
they believe is shaped by the accidents of human history and the power
of the human imagination" [p. 129, italics added]. However, Alcock does
not deny the importance of the role of culture - he not only addresses
the importance of evolutionary processes in the lives (developmental sequences)
of individual humans but also stimulates the reader's thoughts about
the role of culture in the evolution of our species.
The book begins with a discussion of what sociobiology is and what it
isn't. Alcock gives a thorough overview of the areas of study that specifically
appeal to sociobiologists. Although psychologists interested in the effects
of evolutionary adaptations will find much to attract them in this book,
it is perhaps noteworthy that the author uses the term "evolutionary psychology"
sparingly; it's given only two references in the index, for example.
By unfortunate necessity, Alcock spends a substantial portion of the
book explaining why the critics of sociobiology (and by extension evolutionary
psychology) are both generally and specifically wide of the mark. For example,
he found the need to address the
naturalistic fallacy, one of the
most frequent impediments to clear thinking (or of intentional obfuscation)
used by the opponents of sociobiology. This error is a logical fallacy
that purports to claim that because some trait or tendency occurs "naturally"
our species, that trait or tendency must be seen as "moral". Another example
of a disingenuous approach of those opposed to the study of sociobiology
is to claim that these scientists subscribe to genetic determinism. Alcock
clarifies this issue so handily that the reader is again left marveling
at the tactics some academics will employ to support what appears to be
their political, rather than scientific or methodological, opposition.
The last section of the book, "The Practical Applications of Sociobiology,"
addresses questions that are most applicable to psychologists. For example,
the question of the extent to which humans can take intentional
control of innate or evolved tendencies is central to the work of psychotherapists.
Alcock describes the 1986 Seville Statement on Violence, produced
by twenty academics that got together to proclaim that our species is not
predisposed by biology toward aggressiveness and war. However, a tendency
toward aggressiveness in humans, especially human males, is seen in virtually
every known culture and throughout all of documented human history. But
are we doomed to respond, puppet-like, to these genetically influenced
aggressive tendencies, even when in most cases they no longer benefit us?
Alcock suggests that there is plenty of evidence to show that people and
even cultures can learn to increase their sense of self-agency and choose
to behave in more productive ways.
In my opinion, The Triumph of Sociobiology will readily put to
rest any lingering doubts and misunderstandings among clinicians and other
non-academicians. Its approach, although not simplistic by any means, is
both easy to follow and easy to digest, and the book uses a very logical
and methodical style of presentation that is especially pleasant for the
reader. The author's style serves to make the information accessible, but
it is the book's content that is most important.
© 2001 Keith Harris
Keith Harris, Ph.D.
is a clinical psychologist and supervisor of Victor Valley Behavioral Health
Center in San Bernardino county, California. His interests include clinical
supervision, the empirical basis for psychotherapy research (and its design),
human decision-making processes, and the shaping of human nature by evolutionary